FILIOQUE AND THE NICENE CREED - DR. GIL HAAS, SAINT AUGUSTINE OF CANTERBURY EPISCOPAL CHURCH, OKLAHOMA CITY
This is Our Story
The disagreement that split Christendom asunder concerned a single word: “Filioque” (fil·ee′oh·kwee) which is translated as “and the Son”. Filioque was added to the Nicene Creed at the Council of Toledo in 589. The filioque clause stated that the Holy Spirit proceeds not only from the Father, but from the Father and the Son. The Eastern Orthodox churches condemned the addition as contrary to the Council of Chalcedon in 451 that barred changes in the NIcene Creed. The inclusion of the phrase was one of the major reasons for the Great Schism of 1054 that wrenched apart Eastern and Western Christianity. A second point of disagreement that fueled the split included the use of unleavened bread at Eucharist by the Western church, while the Eastern Orthodox only used bread with yeast as a symbol of Christ’s New Covenant with His church. The final point of controversy was the claim by Rome of Papal Supremacy. The Lambeth Conference recommended in 1988 that filioque be dropped by all churches within the Anglican Communion to foster relations with Orthodox churches. The 1994 Episcopal General Convention resolved to delete the filioque phrase from the NIcene Creed in our next Book of Common Prayer.
~ Dr. Gil Haas, Saint Augustine of Canterbury Episcopal Church, Oklahoma City
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